Welcome to Nordic Lavender and our tutorial on how to grow ghost peppers from seed. We will be growing two varieties of Bhut Jolokia peppers (Capsicum chinense): Chocolate Bhut Jolokia and the more common regular or red Bhut Jolokia.
Hot peppers like ghost peppers are trickier to germinate and grow than milder and sweeter peppers. In fact, the level of difficulty tends to follow the level of capsaicin  or how hot the pepper is according to the Scoville scale .
And to give you a frame of reference, the listing below will show you how hot ghost peppers are compared to 7 popular pepper varieties as indicated by their SHU (Scoville Heat Units).
|Name of pepper||Heat as measured in SHU |
|Ghost peppers (e.g. Bhut Jolokia)||750 000 – 1 500 000 SHU|
|Habanero peppers||100 000 – 350 000 SHU|
|Cayenne peppers||25 000 – 50 000 SHU|
|Serrano peppers||10 000 – 25 000 SHU|
|Jamaican Bell pepper||14 000 SHU|
|Jalapeno pepper||2500 – 10 000 SHU|
|Spanish Padron peppers||1000 – 8000 SHU|
|Bell pepper||0-100 SHU|
5 steps to growing ghost peppers from seeds
The first step of growing ghost peppers is all about planning and preparation. Pepper plants grow slowly and need a long time to develop. And as the plants are not hardy to cold temperatures or frost, you should plan to start your seeds 8-10 weeks before the last frost.
For us in zone 7, we are often looking at transplanting outdoors in early May, which is why late February or early March would be an ideal time to start our hot pepper plants.
Watch our “How to grow ghost peppers” video tutorial
Or click here to watch on YouTube:
Grow ghost peppers | Start Bhut Jolokia ghost peppers from seed | Hot peppers | NordicLavender.com
1. Potting soil mix for starting ghost pepper seeds
Choose a lean potting soil mix that drains well. We always add perlite (5-10%) or coarse sand for improved drainage as it is key that the soil mix is moist but never wet.
Pre-moisten your potting soil mix by adding water as you mix. You want the potting soil mix to be crumbly without chunks or large bits of organic matter.
Test your soil by making a soil ball with your hands. The soil mix should hold together but crumble easily.
2. Fill pots with potting mix
Fill pots almost all the way up and press soil gently with your fingers. Add more potting mix as needed to maintain a level of soil where the pot is almost full.
We use 18 cell seed trays with plastic domes but any smaller sized starter pot will work.
If you did not pre-moisten your potting mix, you should bottom water your pots before moving on to the next step.
3. Plant Bhut Jolokia ghost pepper seeds
There are many different stratification techniques where seeds are treated to simulate natural conditions that the seeds need to experience before they can germinate.
Placing seeds in the fridge and then removing them to simulate a “spring is here and it is time to germinate” effect and soaking seeds in tea are two techniques used by some gardeners.
All I do is to place the seeds in room temperature water for 8 hours before planting. The process also serves as a pre-germination or viable seed test, as dead seeds that float after 8 hours are discarded.
When seeds are soaked, place one pepper seed per pot and cover with a light layer of potting mix or vermiculite.
Gently press the top of the pot to ensure that there is good contact between seed and soil.
Mist the pot with water using a spray bottle.
4. Cover and place pots in a warm location
Next, cover the pots to create a moist growing environment and place pots in a warm location.
Covering the seed tray or placing the pots in a plastic bag without sealing completely is ast enough. But the “warm location” part often causes confusion. You see, warm is not the same as hot.
We find that seeds of hotter pepper varieties germinate best with a soil temperature of approximately 24-27 degrees Celsius (75-80 degrees Fahrenheit).
But, remember that hotter is not always better. We have in the past killed pepper seeds when placing pots on a window sill over a piping hot radiator during a cold February. Again, warm is not the same as hot.
And you want the warmth to come from below. You want the soil to be warm and you want the temperature to be consistent.
The easy solution is of course to buy and use heat mats. Or, why not use the common hack where pots are placed on a kitchen appliance like a refrigerator that generates heat.
Also, if you see a lot of condensation forming inside the cover or plastic bag, make sure to air the pot once a day and check on water and moisture level.
Often, excessive condensation is formed when you over-water and soil is (too) wet. And this is not good. You want soil to be evenly moist but not wet.
5. Watch for seeds to germinate and sprout first leaves
Bhut Jolokia seeds take anything from 2-5 weeks to germinate even under perfect conditions.
When you see first leaves sprouting, remove cover and place seedlings in a spot with at least 8 hours of sunlight.
If you do not have a window sill with 8 hours of natural sunlight, use grow lights and increase time to 10-12 hours per day.
When seeds have germinated, the pepper plants benefit from a slightly cooler growing environment around 20 degrees Celsius (68 F).
Transplanting ghost pepper seedlings
It is time to transplant your ghost peppers when seedlings are large enough to handle and have at least 4 true leaves (2 pairs).
As we only plant one seed per pot or seed tray cell there will be a maximum of one seedling per pot.
Bhut Jolokia ghost pepper plants benefit from being transplanted several times and each time to a slightly larger pot.
The roots grow until they reach the drier,less moist soil towards the edge of the pot. The drier soil signals the roots to stop growing in that direction, and instead focus on establishing fresh branching roots.
Read our article on When to pot up or transplant peppers (and how)? or watch the video from our Grow Peppers YouTube series of videos.
All hot peppers including habaneros and ghost peppers like Bhut Jolokia must be handled with care and respect. For you as a gardener this means that you need gloves at all times when handling hot peppers. And never touch skin, face, eyes, etc. after handling hot peppers. Also, never give hot peppers to someone without telling them what they are handling and / or eating.
Why grow extremely hot ghost peppers like Bhut Jolokia?
Growing peppers I have come across 3 types of people that grow hot peppers. I will tell you where I fall after the listing.
- The novelty hot pepper connoisseur
- People who actually eat hot food
- Gardeners who relish the challenge
If we start from the top we have the people who want to grow the hottest pepper available – period. All that matters is that it is the hottest. This is not me.
Then you have the people who actually enjoy hot food. You know, the people who will order a Vindaloo curry where every one else opts for Tikka Masala or Madras curries. And while I am not into the hottest of dishes, I do have an affinity for spicy and hot flavours with full undertones.
I never eat or use really hot peppers and chillies like ghost peppers or habaneros whole. Instead, I use them to infuse oils or for hot sauces and marinades. Or enjoy them pickled or dried in mixes with other peppers and spices where they bring a full, rich, and mature dimension.
And then there are the gardeners who are always up for a challenge. And as hotter peppers want tropical conditions with full sun and humidity they will always pose a challenge for gardeners in non-tropical zones. While I do like a challenge, this does not apply in my decision to grow hot peppers.